Correlation of the squat-and-smile test against other patient-reported outcome scores in knee pathology

Authors

Keywords:

squat and smile, KOOS, PROM, smiley faces, outcome score

Abstract

Background; The use of patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) for knee pathology may be affected by socioeconomic factors, language barriers and time constraints in busy outpatient clinics. The squat-and-smile test (SST) is an example of such a test that has previously been validated for femur fractures. The aim of this study was to validate the SST against other PROMs in patients with knee pathology.

Methods: Patients presenting to a subspecialist knee clinic in a large hospital in sub-Saharan Africa were approached to participate. They were asked to squat and the depth of the squat as well as the need to support themselves were classified into four categories. To describe their pain, participants also selected one of three smiley faces (unhappy, neutral, smiling). These test scores were correlated to the patient’s Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), Tegner Lysholm score and EQ-5D scores.

Results: Seventy patients (median age 53.4 years) were included. The squat depth correlated moderately with the KOOS score (r=0.56) and poorly with the EQ-5D and Lysholm scores (r=0.46; r=0.43). The need for squat support had poor correlations with the KOOS, EQ-5D and Lysholm scores (r=0.29; r=0.31; r=0.31), as did the smiley face component (r=0.40; r=0.32; r=0.30).

Conclusion: For patients with knee pathology, the squat depth correlates moderately with other PROMs. It could therefore be used in settings for which conventional PROMs have limited application. Support needed to squat, and a visual analogue scale of smiley faces, had poor correlation when compared to other knee PROMs and should not be used for the assessment of knee pathology.

Level of evidence: Level 4

Author Biographies

Johan le Roux, University of Cape Town

Orthopaedic Research Unit, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Groote Schuur Hospital, University of Cape Town, South Africa

Roopam Dey, University of Cape Town

Orthopaedic Research Unit, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Groote Schuur Hospital, University of Cape Town and Department of Human Biology, Division of Biomedical Engineering, University of Cape Town, South Africa

Andrea S Deichl, University of Cape Town

Orthopaedic Research Unit, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Groote Schuur Hospital, University of Cape Town, South Africa

Oscar Torney, Charité Universitätsmedizin

Charité Universitätsmedizin, Berlin

Maritz Laubscher, University of Cape Town

Orthopaedic Research Unit, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Groote Schuur Hospital, University of Cape Town, South Africa

Simon M Graham, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine

Orthopaedic Research Unit, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Groote Schuur Hospital, University of Cape Town, South Africa and Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Liverpool, United Kingdom

Michael Held, University of Cape Town

Orthopaedic Research Unit, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Groote Schuur Hospital, University of Cape Town, South Africa

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Published

2021-08-31

Issue

Section

Knee