Patella dislocations and patellofemoral instability: a current concepts review
Keywords:patellofemoral instability, patellar dislocation
Lateral patellar dislocation affects young, active patients with an incidence rate of 5.8 per 100 000. The management of first episode dislocations is non-surgical in the majority of cases, unless associated pathology dictates surgical intervention. Approximately 40% of cases that are treated non-surgically will develop recurrent patellofemoral instability. Evidence supports surgical intervention in these cases; however, the best approach is debatable. Most research and consensus statements agree that medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction (MPFLR) should be performed in most cases. Additional procedures can be used ‘a la carte’ according to certain conditions or pathology. A tibial tubercle osteotomy (TTO) is usually indicated in patients with maltracking and/or patella alta, but the direction and degree of correction must be carefully considered. Trochleoplasty is technically demanding and should be reserved for a select few patients with severe trochlear dysplasia. It should be performed by an experienced knee surgeon due to the high risk of inadvertent complications.
Level of evidence: Level 5