Epidemiology of primary bone tumours in Nigeria: a systematic review
Keywords:epidemiology, primary bone tumours, Nigeria
Background; Primary bone tumours, although rare, are an important rising cause of morbidity and mortality in Africa. Late presentation, delayed diagnosis and failure to obtain consent for surgical procedures are important causes of loss of limb and life especially in the West African subregion. Existing data on primary bone tumours in Nigeria have been based on studies performed at various regional levels. The aim of this study is to determine the epidemiological pattern of primary bone tumours in Nigeria in general, including demographics, predominant tumour types and predominant skeletal location by reviewing existing data.
Methods: A search of the following databases: University of Edinburgh Library, PubMed, CINAHL and SCOPUS from 2000 till January 2021 following PRISMA guidelines was conducted to identify studies conducted in Nigeria with relevant epidemiological data on primary bone tumours in Nigeria.
Results: The search yielded a total of 952 hits from which seven hospital-based retrospective studies met the inclusion criteria for review. The estimated incidence rate of primary bone tumours ranged from 0.08 to 0.31 per 100 000 population. All studies showed a male preponderance. The peak age group of individuals presenting with both benign and malignant primary bone tumours was 11–20 years. Overall, benign tumours were more common. Osteochondromas were the most common benign tumours, while the commonest malignant tumours identified were osteosarcomas. The most common location for both benign and malignant tumours were the tibia and fibula.
Conclusion: Nigeria shares some similar epidemiological characteristics of primary bone tumour with other countries; however, some peculiar differences have been identified in this study. Population-based studies are required to obtain more accurate epidemiological data about this disease.
Level of evidence: Level 2